At Lincoln House

The Weblog of the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy

November 14, 2014

Academic institutions are becoming Conservation Catalysts

Conservation_Catalysts_cover_webEfforts to protect jaguar habitats from Mexico to Argentina, coastal areas in southern Australia, and vital ecosystems along the Colorado River all have one thing in common: academic institutions have become the lynchpin to making these initiatives happen.
    The strategic role of these institutions, from colleges and universities to research institutes and field stations, is documented in a new volume published by the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Conservation Catalysts: The Academy as Nature’s Agent, edited by James N. Levitt. The book is being launched officially today at the IUCN World Parks Congress in Sydney, Australia.
     Twenty-first-century conservationists are contending with biodiversity loss on an unprecedented scale, compounded by the interrelated threat of climate change. These global challenges call for first-rate talent, highly sophisticated technology, and advanced financial and organizational tools that can be used across jurisdictional boundaries and professional disciplines.
     According to Levitt, a fellow at the Lincoln Institute and a pioneer in the implementation of large landscape conservation, academic institutions have quietly become surprisingly powerful and effective catalysts for integrating all these elements into strategically significant and enduring large landscape conservation initiatives.
      Conservation Catalysts: The Academy as Nature’s Agent gathers more than a dozen first-hand accounts of the long-term impacts academics are making on the ground, from the University of Nairobi to Harvard. With measurable results, their efforts are protecting wildlife habitat, improving water quality, building sustainable economies, and creating better public amenities around the world now and for centuries to come.
      Conservation Catalysts: The Academy as Nature’s Agent will be available for free downloading in its entirety, as part of the Lincoln Institute's continuing innovations in digital publishing.  The book is structured to identify key themes of biodiversity, regional collaboration, and legal and financial mechanisms inherent in conservation at the landscape scale.
      The cases detailed include conservation efforts in Trinidad & Tobago, the Colorado River Delta, Florida’s scrub ecosystem, Canada’s Boreal systems, Maine’s Penobscot River watershed, the Mara-Serengeti Ecosystem and Greater Maasailand, and Australia’s Victoria coast. Initiatives covered include the Kenyon College Land Conservation Initiative, the Quiet Corner Initiative at the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies,  the Wildlands and Woodlands Initiative of the Harvard Forest, and Colorado College’s Large Landscape Conservation Strategy to Save the Colorado River Basin. The book also includes a poem, “Body of Bark,” by Caroline Harvey.
      A special session is set at the IUCN World Parks Congress in Sydney to mark the book’s publication, on Tuesday, November 18th, 12:00 pm - 1:30 pm at the Protected Planet Pavilion. Jim Levitt will be joined by Gary Tabor, executive director of the Center for Large Landscape Conservation, fellow at the University of Montana Center for Natural Resource and Environmental Policy, and author of the chapter on the Crown of the Continent initiative; and Geoffrey Wescott, associate professor at the School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia, and author of chapter on coastal zone management in the Australian state of Victoria.
      A critical component of academic institutions as catalysts – students – will also be recognized at IUCN, in the session “Young Conservation Catalysts: Voices of a New Generation”, scheduled for Monday, November 17th, 10:30 am - 12:00 pm in Hall 3 Nth Pod. These young leaders are involved in initiatives worldwide. The speakers, Alessandra Lehmen, Brendan Boepple, Delaney Boyd, Fabian Huwyler, and Priscila Steier, have written essays in a competition led by the Lincoln Institute, that will appear at GlobalPost in the Voices section of The GroundTruth Project, a foundation-supported initiative dedicated to training the next generation of foreign correspondents in the digital age. The commentary highlights social justice, innovation, and change.
       In addition to being a fellow at the Lincoln Institute in the Department of Planning and Urban Form, James N. Levitt is director of the Program on Conservation Innovation at the Harvard Forest, and a senior fellow at Highstead. He has been instrumental in the formation of the Practitioners Network for Large Landscape Conservation and recently brought together more than 30 leaders from around the world to form an international conservation network. 

November 13, 2014

Community land trusts and permanently affordable housing

     Homeownership has lost its luster since 2008, and no wonder – as Americans lost trillions in wealth, many have turned to renting. But as Lincoln Institute president George W. McCarthy and Harold Simon, executive director of the National Housing Institute,write in an op-ed essay, published in The Boston Globe, there is a third way: shared equity housing, in the form of community land trusts.
     In a typical approach, a non-profit takes a long-term ground lease and sells the homes, but not the land underneath, a manageable price to families with low or moderate incomes. If they later decide to sell their home, a cap on resale profit keeps the price low to remain affordable to a new family of similar means.
      The approach brings stability to the wild swings that can be characteristic in housing markets. Foreclosures are virtually nonexistent at one of the most successful CLTs in the country, right here in Boston – the Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative in Roxbury, this fall celebrating its 30th anniversary. Our research has shown that conventional loans are eight times more likely to experience foreclosure than CLT mortgages.
     Yet, sadly, a legislative technicality is preventing CLTs from scaling up; the FHA says it can’t back mortgages for CLTs, in part because of the cap-on-resale-profit provision. “The third path between renting and homeownership is tantalizingly within reach,” McCarthy and Simon write. “It would be a shame if bureaucratic entanglements stood in the way.”
     It’s been a big month for shared equity housing, inclusionary zoning, and CLTs. We were interviewed for this story at Next City magazine, The City Where Real Estate Developers and Housing Activists Agree to Agree, all about a small, dense city neighboring Cambridge, where the Lincoln Institute is located. Somerville, Mass. is confronting sharply increased home prices and speculation, in the face of redevelopment schemes, rezoning, and major new transit infrastructure, including the planned extension of the Green Line. Community activists are rightly concerned about displacement and gentrification.
     In the interview with the writer, we talked about two strategies: inclusionary housing, in place in Boston and Cambridge, where developers are required to provide a certain percentage of affordable homes as part of any new market-rate private development; and CLTs.
    Senior fellow Armando Carbonell provided more context about CLTs in another piece in Next City that ran a few days later, titled Should Community Land Trusts Rank Higher in the Affordable Housing Toolbox? “One of the things that we think is great about community land trusts is that they are pretty stable even in the face of tough economic conditions,” he said.
     CLTs can also act as a bulwark against gentrification, particularly, as our research shows, at transit-oriented development sites. The Role of Community Land Trusts in Fostering Equitable Transit-Oriented Development: Case Studies from Atlanta, Denver, and the Twin Cities, by Robert Hickey, senior research associate at the Center for Housing Policy in Washington, DC., was published as a working paper earlier this year.
     Finally, the Guardian published this article, Could community land trusts offer a solution to the UK’s housing crisis?

November 12, 2014

Redeveloping our cities for the future

     Citybuilding is all about redevelopment, writes Lincoln Institute president George W. McCarthy in the current issue of Land Lines -- whether the repurposing of Legacy Cities, or the reconfiguration of informal and unplanned settlement in cities in the developing world. Herewith an abstract of his Message from the President in the quarterly journal:
     "When I was a scholar at Cambridge University in the 1990s, my now-departed colleague and friend Wynne Godley would drop by on Sundays to take me to visit one of the ubiquitous medieval churches in the villages of East Anglia. Wynne frequently noted that “a church is more a process than a building. It unfolds over centuries and involves generations of families in its construction and maintenance.” He had a keen eye for architectural detail and would point out a buttress or belfry that illustrated distinct technical practices, unusual materials, or both. A single church offered a living, layered record of how successive generations of a community solved the challenge of making and keeping large, enclosed, open spaces for worship feasible and beautiful.
     In this way, cities are much like medieval churches. Over time, they illustrate the collaboration of generations of residents, as well as the evolution of economic, technical, and even social tools used to build and maintain them. Rome’s marble relics stand testament to ancient values, aesthetics, and building ingenuity, while a modern city thrives around them. Manhattan’s iconic skyline, seemingly fixed, is ever in flux, and is now evolving dramatically to respond to 21st-century demands for sustainability, resilience, mixed-use development, and other concerns. 
     The boundaries of cities evolve, too, and tell another critically important story. The future of the planet may depend on our capacity to understand that story and to develop the tools and collective will to manage the pattern and progression of urban growth. Shlomo (Solly) Angel documents this trajectory in the Atlas of Urban Expansion, which uses satellite images collected over decades to track the spatial evolution of 120 cities around the world, from Bamako and Guadalajara to Shanghai and Milan. The last half-century of urban growth has provided a cautionary tale about the seduction of sprawl—a path of least resistance that generates quick profits but unsustainable development. Our ability to manage our ecological footprint and minimize our global impact will be tied inextricably to our ability to plan and construct more dense and efficient human settlements. Given the United Nations’ prediction that the global urban population will nearly double to 6 billion by 2050, the fortunes of the planet will depend on whether we, as a species, adopt a more appropriate development paradigm over this half-century. 
     As we endeavor to reinvent our urban settlements, we will confront an old foe—land that is already improved and developed, but needs to be adapted to new uses. While we are not unfamiliar with this highly contentious process, it is safe to say that we have not yet cracked the code on how to manage it ... At the Lincoln Institute, we are keenly aware of the need for new ideas and new practices to facilitate sustainable redevelopment of land that is already developed or occupied. Over the next year, we will begin to build an intellectual enterprise around addressing the manifold challenges of urban regeneration—extracting the lessons learned from earlier efforts in the United States and other developed countries since World War II, finding new and creative ways to finance infrastructure that improves the land under the informal settlements that choke cities in developing countries, or rekindling the fiscal health of legacy cities like Detroit by unpacking the causes of insolvency and testing remedies for it.
     The medieval churches that I visited during the 1990s offered lessons in stone. These included innovative techniques and materials that permitted medieval architects to defy gravity. Perhaps more importantly, they were monuments to the communal efforts and long-term commitment of the congregations that built and sustained them over centuries. In the end, human survival might hinge on our ability to override similarly the centripetal forces that undermine collective action, and to build and maintain the social structures and policy frameworks to develop and redevelop our cities for mutual and long-term posterity." 

November 03, 2014

Regeneration without gentrification

     We were interviewed for this terrific in-depth story at Next City magazine, The City Where Real Estate Developers and Housing Activists Agree to Agree, all about a small, dense city neighboring Cambridge, where the Lincoln Institute is located. Somerville, Mass. is confronting a boom all its own, with sharply increased home prices and speculation, in the face of redevelopment schemes, rezoning, and major new transit infrastructure.
     At Assembly Square, the site of a former auto assembly plant that used to turn out Edsels, a new Orange Line station will be an important anchor for future redevelopment. And most of all, an extension of the Green Line is on the way, north through the heart of Somerville, and ending in the area of Tufts University at the Medford line -- the first major extension of Greater Boston's transit system. Major transit-oriented development is planned for the new stations all along this corridor, many in rezoned industrial areas and what might now be characterized as more affordable neighborhoods. Community activists are rightly concerned about displacement and gentrification.
     In the interview with the writer, we talked about two strategies: inclusionary housing, in place in Boston and Cambridge, where developers are required to provide a certain percentage of affordable homes as part of any new market-rate private development; and the concept of community land trusts, which helps secure permanently affordable housing through long-term ground leases that take the cost of land out of the homebuying equation. There is also a cap on resale profits in CLTs, sustaining the affordability over time.
     With apologies for the alphabet soup of acronyms, CLTs can be particularly effective at TOD sites. We published a paper on this very topic: The Role of Community Land Trusts in Fostering Equitable Transit-Oriented Development: Case Studies from Atlanta, Denver, and the Twin Cities, by Robert Hickey, senior research associate at the Center for Housing Policy in Washington, DC.

October 20, 2014

Cities at Center Stage: Towards Habitat III

CasertaThe number of people living in cities is expected to top 6 billion by 2050 – two-thirds of the projected global population of 9 billion. Yet approximately 1 billion people already live in slums, and rural migrants are moving directly into these areas of informal settlement every day, particularly in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. An estimated three billion people will need housing, basic infrastructure, and services by 2030.
     Last week about 100 thought leaders and practitioners from around the world gathered for the Urban Thinkers Campus, hosted by UN-HABITAT, to establish a framework for making these global cities more inclusive, resilient, and vibrant. The three-day forum was part of the run-up to Habitat III, the United Nations Housing and Sustainable Urban Development summit, to be held in 2016.
     A Lincoln Institute delegation led a conversation about using value capture to finance infrastructure and urban development generally, underscoring the important of land policy in the provision of affordable, serviced land. We summarized our assessment of efforts to improve slum conditions to date, such as awarding title in Peru or making targeted upgrading improvements in the favelas of Brazil, outlined in the report Regularization of Informal Settlements in Latin America. But the emphasis was on policies to redirect informality in the first place, through inclusionary housing, a form of which has been used in Chile, Community Land Trusts, betterment levies, and Brazil’s zones of special social interest or ZEIS. We also shared the Atlas of Urban Expansion, a tool for tracking the growth of global cities that is set to be updated in 2015, to assist decision-makers in preparing for the massive influx of population in the years ahead.

October 10, 2014

The unnerving story of China's underground urban dwellers

Beijing undergroundThe amazing and unsettling story of China’s underground urban dwellers is told in the October issue of Land Lines. An estimated one million people are living in subterranean apartments in Beijing, where affordable housing near employment is scarce for the greater city’s 23 million inhabitants, writes Annette M. Kim, associate professor at the Sol Price School of Public Policy at the University of Southern California, in Hidden City: Beijing’s Subterranean Housing Market.
     The underground homes are often windowless subdivisions in basements and air raid shelters, and the median size is 9.75 square meters. Some complexes contain as many as 600 units below street level, deep underground.
     Demand remains high to live underground, despite an official initiative of evictions dating back to 2010. In some areas of the city, particularly in the outer districts, conspicuous signs on the street advertise subterranean rentals, and advertisements proliferate on the Internet. The article draws on the author’s analysis of this phenomenon from 2012 to 2013, when online advertising for subterranean apartments was active and growing. The listings were a roadmap providing clues about location, price, size, amenities, and depth below ground, in the context of a wild low-income rental housing submarket.
     Like most Chinese cities, Beijing suffers an acute shortage of affordable rental housing, driven by the massive migration to urban centers. Underground space is common, thanks in part from a policy dating to 1950 that requires all new buildings to have common basements and air defense shelters, that include basic infrastructure such as electricity, water, and sewer. Desperate to address the housing deficit, Chinese officials actually encouraged the utilization of underground space, but then stopped sanctioning the practices in 2010.
     Given the number of people involved and the lack of affordable housing alternatives, the process has posed challenges, including landlords who demand compensation for occupancy rights they had purchased when the units were legal.
     Since China transitioned to a private market from a centrally planned economy, where the state provided all housing, the real estate sector has grown explosively. Treated primarily as an investment vehicle, new private units are accessible only to those with enough savings to purchase a house with little financing. Restrictions on land supply also tighten the market. Meanwhile, workers are eager to shorten commutes, to save time and money, and be close to subway stations and ideally within the 5th Ring Road. 
     There have been extraordinary accounts of people living on roofs and in sewer wells, trying to find a way to live in central Beijing. Reliance on underground housing is another desperate measure by the urban poor who lack the means to acquire housing through “hukou,” the official housing registration permit, Kim writes. The challenge of housing will intensify as Asian megacities continue to boom.

October 09, 2014

Redevelopment, value capture, TIFs on tap for visiting fellows

     Alexander von Hoffman, senior fellow at the Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, has been named a visiting fellow at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, charged with developing a foundation for future work on redevelopment. He joins several other new visiting fellows studying such topics as value capture, TIFs, and global urbanization.
     The author of House by House, Block by Block: The Rebirth of America’s Urban Neighborhoods (Oxford University Press, 2003), von Hoffman will be researching a paper on lessons from redevelopment in the U.S., with a particular focus on the troubled cities of the 1970s, such as Boston, New York, Washington, D.C., Seattle, and San Francisco. The factors leading to the recent trajectory of economic resurgence may inform how redevelopment is linked to recovery, for cities here and abroad.
     In the current issue of the quarterly journal Land Lines, Lincoln Institute president George W. McCarthy explores the theme of redevelopment – improving land that is already developed or occupied – as the major planning and development challenge of the 21st century.
     The Lincoln Institute also announced these appointments:
-- David Vetter, a former vice president of Dexia Credit in Latin America, is a visiting fellow in the Latin America program, conducting research on value capture as a way to help finance Brazil’s considerable urban infrastructure needs, seeking to define the dimensions of Brazil’s urban infrastructure needs.
-- David Merriman, from the Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Illinois Chicago, is a visiting fellow in the Department of Valuation and Taxation, researching local and state-imposed business property taxes, economic efficiency, and the political economy of state business taxation. He will also research on tax increment financing and contribute to the Lincoln Institute database Significant Features of the Property Tax.
-- Enrique Silva, an assistant professor and program coordinator at the City Planning and Urban Affairs program at Boston University, has joined the Lincoln Institute as senior research associate in the Latin America program. An expert in comparative urbanization, metropolitan governance, and the institutionalization of planning practices in North and South America, he will supervise and evaluate research, and organize research seminars. He will present on new strategies to mitigate informal settlement at the Urban Thinkers Campus next week organized by UN-HABITAT.
-- Scott Campbell, executive director of the Palmer Land Trust in southern Colorado, is this year’s Lincoln-Loeb Fellow, studying how conservation and natural resource allocations intersect.

October 03, 2014

Tax liens, tax sales, and due process

     Today at the Lincoln Institute, Emory law school professor Frank S. Alexander, co-founder of the Center for Community Progress, will lead a conversation on one of the least understood and yet most important aspects of property tax administration – that of delinquent tax enforcement. Collection rates of 90 to 95 percent are viewed with pride and satisfaction, but even these high rates frequently mask externalities. Delinquency rates of 2 or 10 percent impose disproportionate negative consequences on neighborhoods, communities, and local government fiscal solvency. Little attention has been given over the past century to the creation of an efficient, effective, and equitable system of property tax enforcement. Little is understood about the financial calculations of delayed enforcement, lack of enforcement, and the transfer of enforcement rights to private third parties. The recent economic recession and mortgage foreclosure crisis have renewed interest in the effects of broken property tax enforcement systems.
     Frank S. Alexander is the Sam Nunn Professor of Law at Emory University School of Law and co-founder of the Center for Community Progress. He is the author or editor of eight books and over fifty articles in real estate finance and community redevelopment including Georgia Real Estate Finance and Foreclosure Law 2013-2014 (9th ed., 2013) and Land Banks and Land Banking (2011). Professor Alexander's work has focused on homelessness and affordable housing. He has served as fellow of the Carter Center of Emory University (1993-1996); commissioner of the State Housing Trust Fund for the Homeless (1994-1998); interim dean of Emory University School of Law (2005-2006); visiting fellow at the Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University (2007); and he has testified before Congress concerning the mortgage foreclosure crisis (2008, 2009). Professor Alexander received his J.D. from Harvard Law School, a Masters in Theological Studies from Harvard Divinity School, and his B.A. from the University of North Carolina.

September 29, 2014

Cities at center stage

Photo (15)We are immersed in a wide ranging conversation about cities at CityLab 2014 in Los Angeles, hearing from thought leaders in the public, private, and non-profit sectors on the challenges of more sustainable and equitable metropolitan regions. Richard Florida led a panel with Pittsburgh mayor Bill Peduto, who participated in a workshop on Legacy Cities at the Lincoln Institute in the spring, on the tough issues of gentrification and skyrocketing housing costs. America's top cities have inequality similar to many struggling third world cities, according to CityLab. In another workshop, former New York planner Amanda Burden posed the question, "Is gentrification inevitable?"  
Mayor Eric Garcetti spoke of deploying "urban accupuncture," and using technology to bring about a new sense of civic togetherness for a famously disparate metropolis. Henk Ovink, the Dutch water expert who is guiding Rebuild by Design, expressed hope that the all vulnerable regions will be better prepared to rebuild for greater resilience. In the 1953 equivalent of Superstorm Sandy in The Netherlands, he said, it took decades to put new systems in place. Even so, "no place is really ready" for the volatile events the future has in store.
    A session on the peer-to-peer sharing economy, including Brian Chesky, co‐founder of Airbnb, with James Bennet, editor‐in‐chief of The Atlantic, underscored the way that the Internet facilitates building trust and gaining credibility, allowing everyone to be an entepreneur, though concerns remain about regulations and fairness to incumbent regimes. UCLA's Donald Shoup joined Janette Sadik-Khan, principal at Bloomberg Partners, in surveying innovations in transport and parking, including variable pricing. Other topics included new forms of local manufacturing, promoting physical activity, farm-to-table and local food trends, innovation teams for city governments, big data, and aging in place.
     The next stop is Detroit and the Meeting of the Minds, an annual convening of practitioners, civic leaders, and technology innovators with which the Lincoln Institute has been longstanding partners. The first day will include a conversation about incremental change and big plans in Legacy Cities, post-industrial areas struggling with population and jobs loss.

September 19, 2014

Conservation leader Jean Hocker named Kingsbury Browne Fellow

     Jean Hocker, a former president of the Land Trust Alliance and longtime board member at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, was named as the next Kingsbury Browne Fellow at the Lincoln Institute. Hocker was also named the winner of the Kingsbury Browne Conservation Leadership Award by the Land Trust Alliance in recognition of outstanding leadership, innovation and passion in land conservation. The announcement was made at the Land Trust Alliance's Rally 2014: The National Land Conservation Conference, in Providence last night.
     The Kingsbury Browne fellowship and award is named for the Boston tax lawyer whose gathering of conservation leaders from across the country in 1981 at the Lincoln Institute evolved into the Land Trust Alliance, today representing more than 1,200 member land trusts. A special short film celebrating Browne’s life and career was shown at the Rally welcoming dinner.
     “I am truly humbled to receive the Kingsbury Browne Award,” Hocker said. “Over the decades, I’ve seen land trusts build on Kingsbury Browne’s vision to become a sophisticated force for conserving and stewarding irreplaceable land resources. I know that folks connected with land trusts are special – smart, dedicated, hard-working, results-oriented. To receive this award is to feel an invaluable kinship with my friends and colleagues who make land conservation a reality.”
      During her tenure from 1987 to 2002 as president and CEO of the Land Trust Alliance, Hocker played a key role in shaping the organization, ensuring land trusts have the tools they need to do their critical work, such as guidance through Land Trust Standards and Practices, extensive educational materials, resources for direct services, and a key voice advocating for federal funding and tax incentives for private land conservation. She continues to be active, consulting with land trusts and their boards, chairing the board of The Wilderness Land Trust, and serving recently as a member of the Land Trust Accreditation Commission. In the fellowship, she will engage in research, writing and mentoring, under the Lincoln Institute's Department of Planning and Urban Form.
     The Kingsbury Browne fellowship and award is in its ninth year. Previous winners were Larry Kueter, a Denver attorney specializing in agricultural and ranchland easements in the West; Peter Stein, managing director of Lyme Timber Co; Audrey C. Rust, president emeritus of the Peninsula Open Space Trust based in Palo Alto, Calif.; Jay Espy, executive director of the Elmina B. Sewall Foundation; Jamie Williams, president of The Wilderness Society; Laurie A. Wayburn, co-founder of the Pacific Forest Trust; Mark Ackelson, president of the Iowa Natural Heritage Foundation; and Darby Bradley, president of the Vermont Land Trust.
     In 1980, as a fellow at the Lincoln Institute, Kingsbury Browne first envisioned a network of land conservation trusts, and convened conservation leaders at the Lincoln Institute in 1981. That gathering led to the formation of the national Land Trust Exchange, which was later renamed the Land Trust Alliance. Browne is considered the father of America's modern land trust movement, a network of land trusts operating in every state of the nation. Together these land trusts have conserved more than 37 million acres, an area the size of New England. Founded in 1982, the Land Trust Alliance is a national land conservation organization that works to save the places people love by strengthening land conservation across America. The Land Trust Alliance, based in Washington, D.C. and with several regional offices, represents 1,200 member land trusts supported by more than 100,000 volunteers and 5 million members nationwide.
      The Land Trust Alliance rally kicked off a busy fall for the Lincoln Institute on the topic of land conservation, with the publication of the Policy Focus Report Large Landscape Conservation and the establishment of The Practitioners Network for Large Landscape Conservation, a group of leaders and innovators on the forefront of today's conservation strategies. Prior to the Rally this year, Lincoln Institute Fellow James N. Levitt brought together three dozen representatives of private and civic land conservation organizations from 16 countries all around the world, to consider formation of the International Land Conservation Alliance, a similar network.
     Next month, the Lincoln Institute is a major partner in the National Workshop on Large Landscape Conservation in Washington D.C. October 23-24. Sally Jewell, the United States Secretary of the Interior, will present a keynote address at the conference, which will showcase conservation innovations and landscape-scale solutions across the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. Krysta Harden, United States Department of Agriculture Deputy Secretary, also will address the group, identifying key conservation provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill. In November, a Lincoln Institute delegation will travel to Sydney, Australia, for the IUCN World Parks Congress, where a new book, Conservation Catalysts: The Academy as Nature’s Agent, edited by Jim Levitt, will be launched.